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The City of Paris within Greater Paris (Grand Paris) conducts an ambitious policy to promote sustainable urban development. On the operational level, this has led to the deployment of different types of actions.

The Climate Plan

In 2007, the City of Paris launched an ambitious Climate Plan (Plan Climat), which defines the broad guidelines and policy commitments designed to reduce all emissions from its territory and activities by 75% in 2050, compared to the 2004 levels. The Paris Climate Plan (Le Plan Climat de Paris) is updated every five years. The updating of the Climate Plan in 2012 provided an opportunity to evaluate the actions undertaken and to envisage the adaptations required in order to guarantee the achievement of the goals set in 2007. In the framework of its first Climate Plan (2007-2012), the City of Paris renovated 15.000 occupied social housing units in order to cut the energy consumption of these apartments by at least 30%. The city also launched in July 2011, a public lighting performance contract which will allow saving the equivalent of the energy consumption of the Greater Toulouse region by 2020. A major energy performance partnership contract has also been launched. The aim is to renovate 100 schools over a two-year period. The City of Paris has thus successfully experimented with a system that recovers heat from wastewater (calories originating from the sewers) at the Wattignies school. This €400.000 facility has been jointly funded by the CPCU (Compagnie Parisienne de Chauffage Urbain) and the “Lyonnaise des Eauxé companies and will cover approximately 70% of the school's heating requirements.


Development of local renewable energies

In the renewable energy field, Paris is implementing innovative projects associated with geothermal energy, heat recovery and building insulation. The city is seeking to reduce waste on a daily basis by installing composting units alongside residential buildings and combating urban "heat islands". In addition, 10.000 m² of solar panels are being installed in urban development areas and on urban infrastructures. Within the framework of the POLIS European programme, the City of Paris and the Paris Urban Planning Agency (Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme - APUR) have created the first solar power registry in Paris, which allows all inhabitants to identify best places with greatest solar energy potential, thus making ecological sustainability interactive and accessible.


More responsible water consumption

Eau de Paris (Paris' public water utility) and its partners are collaborating on the installation of water-saving kits in order to reduce Parisians' water and electricity bills. 15.000 kits have been installed in social housing managed by Paris Habitat, with the goal of reducing tenants' consumption by 15%. In public spaces, the consumption of non-drinking water has fallen by 30%.



A Biodiversity Plan (“Plan biodiversité”) was launched in November 2011 with the aim of improving the quality of life for Parisians. By 2020, an additional seven hectares of green roofs, including at least 15 terrace gardens and 40 ponds will be added to the 62 hectares of new green spaces provided for Parisians between 2004 and 2013.


More environmentally friendly forms of mobility

In the framework of its Climate Plan, the City of Paris has set itself the target of reducing traffic emissions in central Paris by 60%, as transport is the biggest source of atmospheric pollution in Paris.  The City of Paris has thus launched a proactive policy that seeks to define a new type of mobility for the capital city:  reduction of motor vehicle traffic, incentives to use cleaner vehicles, extension of public transport and their improvement, development of the "Pedestrian Paris" (“Paris Piéton”) programme, etc. In this context, the City of Paris successfully launched the Vélib’ (self-service bicycles) operation five years ago, which makes a fleet of over 18.000 bicycles available to users. These are spread out over 1.600 stations in Paris and in the 29 adjoining municipalities.  The City of Paris is also promoting cycling via a new plan adopted in 2010, which envisages 700 km of cycle tracks by 2014.  Paris will continue to create cycle tracks until 2020, while developing adapted parking areas and encouraging companies to build bicycle garages for their employees.

Autolib', with 1.740 vehicles and 835 stations, is the world's first large-scale, full electric car-sharing service in Paris, covering central Paris itself and 53 municipalities within the Paris region. The "Bluecar" - a four-seater electric car - is equipped with a rechargeable lithium metal polymer battery, which can run for up to 200.000 kilometres before needing to be replaced, and can store five times more energy than a traditional lithium battery. It is made exclusively from non-polluting materials and poses no risks to the environment. At the end of its life, the car is dismantled and all its components are recycled or reused.

The City of Paris is also supporting the development of transport networks throughout the entire metropolis and in the Paris Basin.  The "New Greater Paris" (Nouveau Grand Paris) plan provides for the modernisation of the existing transport systems and the creation of a new automatic rapid rail transport system (métro): the Grand Paris Express. The Société du Grand Paris (SGP) has been appointed to design and execute this project which, by 2030, will lead to the construction of 72 stations and over 200 kilometres of track for a fully automatic (predominantly underground) rapid rail transit system requiring a total investment of €23 billion. The Grand Paris Express will consist of four new lines and the extension of an existing line. The Grand Paris Express is a flagship project.



Several eco-districts (éco-quartiers) are currently being constructed within the city. These include:

► The Clichy-Batignolles eco-district : a 54 hectare project consisting of 10 hectares of green spaces, 3.400 dwellings (50% of which will be social housing) and 38.000 m² of public facilities. Clichy-Batignolles is an exemplary operation in the application of the Paris Climate Plan, with unmatched performance levels within a densely populated city. In addition to prioritising mobility, housing, social diversity and accessibility for people with reduced mobility, etc., the project also places the emphasis on energy-efficient buildings, the use of renewable energies and the preservation of biodiversity. The vast majority of the heat source, for heating and hot water will be geothermal. It will be obtained by drilling a bore hole to an approximate depth of 650 m. Moreover an innovative pneumatic waste collection system (underground vacuum collection system) is being set up, which will help to cut waste collection traffic, while reducing pollution and noise. In addition to green spaces, the creation of grounds covering 10 hectares, landscaped gardens, the presence of green roofs and the cultivation of a variety of plants shall form an ecological network that promotes biodiversity. The innovative and exemplary Clichy Batignolles project was the winner of the "New Urban Districts" (Nouveaux quartiers urbains) call for projects issued by the Ile de France region in 2010.

► The Claude Bernard Designated Development Area (ZAC) is one of the first 13 operations to be awarded the "Écoquartier" label. Its ultimate aim is to facilitate the creation of a diversified urban fabric, the revamping of public spaces and economic development. A special effort is being made to integrate nature into the city. Indeed, the project includes the planting of a "linear forest" on either side of the Paris ring road. This represents a genuine ecological corridor to promote the development of flora and fauna, accompanied by the creation of a nature reserve covering approximately 8.000 m². The project will also place the emphasis on: the future recourse to deep geothermal energy that will save 10.000 tonnes of CO² per year; the removal of building site rubble by inland waterway transport; the requirement for operators to conform to certain "irreducible" limits in relation to energy performance (over 64% of areas thus qualify for the "BBC" low-energy housing label); shared management of car parks by offices, businesses and shops, which allows for a significant reduction in  the number of places required.


Stimulating and speeding up technological innovation for sustainable cities

Along with the implementation of these projects, Paris is also relying on innovation. Since 2010, the Paris Région Innovation laboratory, created by the City of Paris, has been building a reputation for implementing experimental programmes which have allowed Paris to develop unique expertise in the deployment of innovative solutions. In 2012 and 2013, two "Energy Efficiency in buildings" (Efficacité Energétique des Bâtiments) calls for projects were issued by the City, the Paris Région Innovation Laboratory and the Agence Parisienne du Climat (Paris Climate Agency). 38 innovative projects were selected and are currently being tested in the capital city: photovoltaic roof tiles, automatic shutdown of electrical appliances at night, remote management of professional buildings, energy-efficient smart grid, etc. Each year, the City of Paris also supports innovative projects developed by SMEs and start-ups specialising in the green economy, by funding research and development projects, launching new products and services and creating jobs. In 2012, around a hundred companies were supported via financing tools and hosting offers, or by being put in contact with public buyers. SMEs have thus benefited from financial support amounting to a total of €2 million. The Paris Innovation Amorçage fund has contributed 40% of this funding. This fund, which is dedicated to Paris start-up companies, has been created in 2009 by the City of Paris and is managed by BPI France (Public Investment Bank). In addition, the city organises annual “Grands Prix de l’Innovation (Innovation Awards) with a special "eco-activities" category.